Anemia is a condition in which there are too few red blood cells to carry the necessary amount of oxygen to the tissues. The number of red cells in the blood is roughly analogous to the amount of water in a bucket. But this bucket is leaky, so to keep the water level constant a running faucet continuously replaces the water being lost—the water flowing in replaces the water flowing out. The escaping water corresponds to the normal aging and death of red cells. The life span of feline red blood cells is only about 70 to 80 days, so they’re in constant need of replacement. These lost cells are replenished—like the water from the faucet—by “factory” tissues in the bone marrow.

Carrying our analogy further, anemia can come about in two ways: either the faucet is turned too low, or water is leaking out more quickly than it can be replenished. Non-regenerative anemia is due to inadequate production of red blood cells by the bone marrow—the faucet’s turned too low. There are many causes, but feline leukemia virus in felines is the most common culprit. Regenerative anemia is caused by either blood loss from hemorrhage or premature death of red cells—the leak in the bucket is too big. It is absolutely essential to distinguish between these two forms of anemia if the condition is to be properly treated. Fortunately, simple blood tests and, if necessary, a bone marrow evaluation allow veterinarians to make the distinction.

Broken cells

Hemolytic anemia results from the abnormal destruction of red cells and is of the regenerative type. In immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), body’s own immune system is fooled into “thinking” that the red blood cells are foreign—and thus destroys them. A plethora of conditions can trick the immune system into behaving badly: Infections, cancer , blood parasites, adverse reactions to medication, poisoning and transfusion reactions are a few. But many cats and dogs with this form of anemia escape diagnosis in spite of extensive diagnostic tests. If a specific cause can’t be identified and alleviated, management then relies on immune-suppressing medications which don’t always help. Many cats and dogs don’t survive.


There are no studies suggesting a relationship between vaccination and IMHA in cats and dogs . This being the case, I see no need to modify vaccination protocol. Remember, the goal is to maximize the benefits of vaccination—of which there are many—while minimizing the risks. The majority of vaccines are rarely associated with serious adverse reactions. But as with any medical procedure, vaccination isn’t entirely free of complications. To tip the balance toward the beneficial side, it’s important to vaccinate only against infectious agents to which your pets have a realistic risk of exposure, and then vaccinate only as often as is necessary.


Just as people are living longer than they did in the past, cats are living longer too, and there is every reason to expect that the “graying” cat population will continue to grow.

How old is my cat and dog  in human years?
Cats  and dogs are individuals and, like people, they experience advancing years in their own unique ways. Many  begin to encounter age-related physical changes between seven and ten years of age, and most do so by the time they are 12. The commonly held belief that every “cat year” is worth seven “human years” is not entirely accurate. In reality, a one-year-old cat is physiologically similar to a 16-year-old human, and a two-year-old cat is like a person of 21. For every year thereafter, each cat year is worth about four human years. Using this formula, a ten-year-old cat is similar age wise to a 53-year-old person, a 12-year-old cat to a 61-year-old person, and a 15-year-old cat to a person of 73.

Advancing age is not a disease
Aging  is a natural process. Although many complex physical changes accompany advancing years, age in and of itself is not a disease. Even though many conditions that affect older pets are not correctable, they can often be controlled. The key to making sure your senior pet has the healthiest and highest quality of life possible is to recognize and reduce factors that may be health risks, detect disease as early as possible, correct or delay the progression of disease, and improve or maintain the health of the body’s systems.

What happens as my cat ages?
The aging process is accompanied by many physical and behavioral changes:

  • Compared to younger cats and dogs , the immune system of older cats and dogs is less able to fend off foreign invaders. Chronic diseases often associated with aging can impair immune function even further.
  • Dehydration, a consequence of many diseases common to older pets , further diminishes blood circulation and immunity.
  • The skin of an older pets  is thinner and less elastic, has reduced blood circulation, and is more prone to infection.
  • The claws of aging pets are often overgrown, thick, and brittle.
  • In humans, aging changes in the brain contribute to a loss of memory and alterations in personality commonly referred to as senility. Similar symptoms may be seen in elderly pets: wandering, excessive meowing, apparent disorientation, and avoidance of social interaction.
  • For various reasons, hearing loss is common in pets  of advanced age.
  • Changes in the eyes. A slight haziness of the lens and a lacy appearance to the iris (the colored part of the eye) are both common age-related changes, but neither seems to decrease vision to any appreciable extent. However, several diseases, especially those associated with high blood pressure, can seriously and irreversibly impair a cat’s ability to see.
  • Dental disease  is extremely common in older pets and can hinder eating and cause significant pain.
  • Although many different diseases can cause a loss of appetite , in healthy senior pets , a decreased sense of smell may be partially responsible for a loss of interest in eating. However, the discomfort associated with dental disease is a more likely cause of reluctance to eat.
  • kidneys undergo a number of age-related changes that may ultimately lead to impaired function;Kidney failure  is a common disease in older cats and dogs, and its symptoms are extremely varied.
  • Degenerative joint diseases, or arthritis, is common in older pets. Although most arthritic pets  don’t become overtly lame, they may have difficulty gaining access to litter boxes and food and water dishes, particularly if they have to jump or climb stairs to get to them.

Is my pet sick, or is it just old age?
Never assume that changes you see in your older pet  are simply due to old age, and are therefore untreatable. Owners of older pets often notice changes in  behavior, but consider these changes an inevitable and untreatable result of aging. However, any alteration in  behavior or physical condition should alert you to contact your veterinarian.

Disease of virtually any organ system, or any condition that causes pain or impairs mobility can contribute to changes in behavior. For example:

  • A fearful cat or dog  may not become aggressive  until it is in pain (e.g., from dental disease) or less mobile (e.g., from arthritis).
  • The increased urine production that often results from diseases common to aging cats (e.g., kidney failure, Diabetes mellitus, or hyperthyroidism) may cause the litter box to become soiled more quickly than expected. The increased soil and odor may prompt cats to eliminate in inappropriate areas. .
  • Many cats that do not mark their territory with urine may begin to do so if a condition like hyperthyroidism develops.
  • Cats with painful arthritis may have difficulty gaining access to a litter box, especially if negotiating stairs is required. Even climbing into the box may be painful for such cats, prompting them to eliminate in inappropriate areas.
  • Older cats and dogs  may be more sensitive to changes in the household since their ability to adapt to unfamiliar situations diminishes with age.

How can I help keep my senior pet healthy?
Close observation is one of the most important tools you have to help keep your senior pet  healthy. You may wish to perform a basic physical examination on a weekly basis. Ask your veterinarian to show you how to do it and what to look for. You will find it easier if you just make the examination an extension of the way you normally interact with your pet. For example, while you are rubbing your pet’s head or scratching its chin, gently raise the upper lips with your thumb or forefinger so you can examine the teeth and gums. In the same way, you can lift the ear flaps and examine the ear canals. While you are stroking fur, you can check for abnormal lumps or bumps, and evaluate the health of the skin and coat.

Daily Brushing
Daily brushing or combing removes loose hairs, preventing them from being swallowed and forming hairballs. Brushing also stimulates blood circulation and sebaceous gland secretions, resulting in a healthier skin and coat. Older pets may not use scratching posts as frequently as they did when they were younger; therefore, nails should be checked weekly and trimmed if necessary.

Daily Tooth Brushing
Brushing your pet’s teeth with a pet-specific toothpaste or powser is the single most effective way to prevent dental disease. Dental disease is more common in older pets and can lead to other health problems, so maintaining oral health is important.

Proper Nutrition
Many pets get heavier or even obese as they age. If your pet is overweight, you should ask your veterinarian to help you change the diet  so that a normal body condition can be restored.

Reducing Stress
Reducing environmental stress whenever possible is very important since older pets  are usually less adaptable to change. Special provisions should be made  that must be boarded for a period of time.

Pets are experts at hiding illness. It is common to have a serious medical problem, yet not show any sign of it until the condition is quite advanced. Since most diseases can be managed more successfully when detected and treated early in their course, it is important for owners  to carefully monitor their behavior and health.

How can my veterinarian help?
Just as your observations can help detect disease in the early stages, so too can regular veterinary examinations. Your veterinarian may suggest evaluating your healthy senior pet  more frequently than a younger. If your pet  has a medical condition, more frequent evaluations may also be necessary. During your pet’s examination, the veterinarian will gather a complete medical and behavioral history, perform a thorough physical examination in order to evaluate every organ system, check  weight and body condition, and compare them to previous evaluations. At least once a year, certain tests, including blood tests, fecal examination, and urine analysis, may be suggested. In this way, disorders can be found and treated early, and ongoing medical conditions can be appraised. Both are necessary to keep your senior pet  in the best possible health.

Should I adopt an older pet ? 
A special group of senior pets that deserves particular attention is older pets  in shelters. While young cats,dogs ,puppies and kittens are attractive to most potential adopters due to their cuteness and playfulness, senior pets are often overlooked by people considering adopting a pet. If people keep their minds open, they will find that there are countless older pets that would make excellent pets and would brighten up any home. The next time you are at the shelter, take some time to check out these mature felines and canines . Taking them home can make both of your lives richer, happier, and more satisfying.


Within each of a cat’s teeth is a chamber (root canal) that contains tissue made up of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. This tissue, which communicates with the rest of the animal’s body, is surrounded by a bony substance called dentin, which accounts for the bulk of the tooth’s structure. In a condition known as a tooth resorption –formerly referred to as feline odontoclastic resorptive lesion (FORL) or cervical line lesion—the dentin in a single tooth (or several simultaneously) erodes and eventually becomes irreparably destroyed. Over time, all areas of an affected tooth, from root to crown, may become involved.

Tooth resorption is a common condition, affecting an estimated 20 percent to 60 percent of all cats and close to three-quarters of those five years of age and older. The cause is unknown. “There are a few theories, but no one is sure about what really stimulates this condition. Some researchers, for example, theorize that an excess of vitamin D in commercial cat food might be to blame, but other researchers don’t necessarily agree. So, for now, we don’t have an answer.”

In most cases,  there will be various levels of resorption in affected teeth, and the destruction can occur at varying speeds until it progresses to a point at which it must be clinically addressed. “A cat may lose just one tooth in its lifetime because of this problem,although it can have a little bit of resorption on other roots that may not require treatment. Regarding the clinical signs of tooth resorption are Loss of appetite might occur if the crown were to break off from a single tooth. In that case, the cat could be off its food for a significant amount of time—24 to 72 hours, say. But in general, the condition has to get to an extreme level before the cat stops eating. Instead, if there are several resorptive lesions in the oral cavity, one of the first signs would be that the cat starts swallowing its food without chewing it or that it suddenly develops a preference for soft food.

A cat may clearly indicate that it is experiencing excruciating pain when it bites down on an affected tooth or if the tooth is touched by a veterinarian’s probing fingers or examining tool. At the same time, chronic toothaches are not among the condition’s most salient clinical signs. A more reliable indicator in this regard is a cat’s behavior while eating. The owner may notice that the animal’s appetite appears to be normal but that it tilts its head and tries to chew on just one side of its mouth. If it is eating kibble, it may try to swallow it without chewing, or the food may fall out of its mouth.

The best way of confirming the suspected presence of the condition , is by means of a full-mouth intra-oral radiograph. its  recommend that a cat’s teeth be visually examined every year.

If veterinary examination reveals the presence of tooth resorption,  the only effective treatment will entail extraction of any affected teeth.


The most frequently diagnosed feline-canine  joint disorder is osteoarthritis, otherwise known as degenerative joint disease (DJD). This condition may be caused by an injury to a joint, by gradual wear and tear on a joint that takes place over time, or as the secondary consequence of a disease that compromises the internal structure of a joint.

In all cases, DJD is characterized by the erosion of cartilage, the smooth tissue that protects the ends of bones from rubbing directly against one another within a movable joint. When this protective tissue, for whatever reason, is worn or torn away completely, the bone ends come immediately into contact, and the persistent grinding of bone against bone results in inflammation and pain of varying severity.
All joints in a cat’s and dog’s body can be affected by DJD, but those that become most visibly apparent to the owner will be the movable joints, most often the shoulders and elbows. But the knees, wrists and hips are also frequently affected. Outward signs of the condition will vary, depending on which joints are most painful, the extent of damage, and the animal’s age.

The earliest visible sign of DJD is likely to be apparent stiffness and a subtle reduction in an affected animal’s activity. Altered gait may eventually occur as the disease progresses or if the joint disorder has resulted from an injury.

Risk Factors

There is no gender predisposition for DJD; male and female cats and dogs  are equally susceptible to the condition. It is seen more frequently in obese cats than in those of normal weight, since overweight animals constantly exert excessive pressure on their weight-bearing joints. The only notable breed disposition for DJD is in Maine Coons who, due to their naturally stocky bodies, are more susceptible to hip dysplasia than other breeds.

Other Conditions

Although DJD is, by far, the most frequently observed feline and canine  joint disorder, a wide variety of other conditions affecting the joints may be responsible for a sudden or gradually occurring lameness. For example, being hit by an automobile or falling from a significant height can fracture or dislocate one or more bones in an animal’s joints. Most frequently, these traumas occur in the front or hind limbs, although such fractures can also occur in a cat’s pelvis or spine.

In some cases, a cat  and dog may be born with a so-called developmental defect—a genetically inherited condition—that affects the joints. Among these conditions, the most frequently occurring is hip dysplasia. In a normally formed animal, the top end of the thigh bone fits snugly into the ball-and-socket joint of the hip but is free enough to glide and partially rotate to allow an animal’s movement. In hip dysplasia, the ball and socket are misaligned and loose, a structural abnormality that causes the bones in the joint to rub painfully against each other.

A host of other problems can compromise the joints in the feline body, such as dietary and hormonal disorders, bone cancer, diabetes , rheumatoid arthritis and ligament ruptures. Fortunately, these conditions, insofar as they impact the joints, are relatively rare in cats and dogs , especially when compared with the frequent occurrence of DJD.

Veterinary diagnosis of a cat and dog  that seems to be experiencing a joint problem focuses, therefore, on confirming the presence of DJD and excluding, to the extent possible, the presence of other conditions that might affect the joints. Diagnosis will entail a complete medical history and overall physical examination of an afflicted animal, followed by an orthopedic exam and X-rays of the  joints.

A number of surgical procedures, such as bone fusion or joint replacement, may relieve problems, but such procedures can also restrict an animal’s activities. So palliative treatment—relying largely on pain medication and attentive home care—is most often recommended. The goal is to relieve the patient’s discomfort and provide him or her with a reasonably good quality of life.


The comfort of acupuncture is getting in trend among veterinarians and the practitioners claim they are encouraged by the outcomes.

Just a few decades before, the comfort of acupuncture in the veterinary medicine was actually unheard of. In recent years, the support of acupuncture in the veterinary medicine has been gradually developing, and successful tales such as Sampson are directing more focus in veterinary acupuncture. At a recent Western Veterinary Conference, an acupuncture wet lab was thrilled to room in large volume of veterinarians motivated in learning more in regard to this “alternative” surgery.

As the application of acupuncture progresses in veterinary medicine, practitioners are finding it much more useful. In reality, acupuncture can be used to help cure sensitivities, seizures, procreative complications, and liver and kidney disorder.

Acupuncture includes the introduction of small gauge needles to various points on the body to become the reason for physiological reactions in the body. It can be exceptionally useful in relieving pain. Acupuncture is used in China as a piece of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM).

The implementation of TCVM is a complete medical system which also consists of food surgery, herbal recommended drugs, massage surgery (referred to as “tui na”) and addressing emotional, behavioral, and domestic problems.

Acupuncture works by stimulating nerve endings near acupuncture points. These nerve fibers then direct impulses to the brain and spinal cord, lasting the reason for changes in the body that fasten curing. Pet owners are showing a progressive interest in this field in an attempt to find the best management for their pets, especially when conventional drug and treatment choices may not have been successful.

As with any clinical treatment, successful veterinary acupuncture will be based upon the training, understanding and expertise of the practitioner. Pet keepers interested in acupuncture should ask about their primary veterinarian for a well-qualified employee.


Ear Problems  in general are uncommon in cats, but among the afflictions that do occur, ear-mite infestation is frequently diagnosed. Although it can’t hop or fly, an ear mite—otherwise known as Otodectes cynotis—can crawl. And if one of these miniscule parasites enters your cat’s ear, makes itself at home, and starts to breed, it can cause major damage unless promptly evicted.

The typical external signs are quite obvious: the cat’s outer ear is likely to be inflamed, and the animal will hold its ears flat against its head, scratch at them almost without letup, and shake its head frequently—as if trying to dislodge a bothersome object. They are also detectable by the mess they make inside an infested animal’s ear canal—a dark, gooey, foul-smelling accumulation of wax and mite debris in which the tiny critter thrives.

Ear mites are almost microscopically tiny ‘about the size of a pinhead’ , But, it’s possible to see their rapidly moving little bodies with the naked eye. Ear mites are extremely contagious, moving from one cat to another on close contact and eventually making their way to the ear. Infestation is most common among outdoor cats, whether they’re brawling or cuddling up affectionately.

If ear mite infestation is suspected, the cat owner should seek veterinary care without delay. Aside from relieving the animal’s discomfort, treatment can curb infection stemming from the mutilation of the ears and face that results from aggressive and nonstop scratching. Veterinary care can also prevent a serious ear disease called otitis externa—an infection of the outer ear that, if untreated, can progress to the middle and inner ear and damage the ear drum, which can permanently affect the animal’s hearing and sense of balance.

A veterinarian can readily diagnose suspected ear mite infestation by using an otoscope, a flashlight-like instrument used to explore the depths of the ear. If the cat is unwilling to allow this instrument near its sensitive ears, the veterinarian will use a cotton swab to gently collect a sample of ear debris for conclusive microscopic examination.

Treatment generally begins with a thorough cleaning of the cat’s ears to remove any wax or debris that may shield the mites from topical medications. There are many topical, oral, and systemic agent.


The Canine and feline kidneys have many important functions.  Among them are: to filter metabolic waste such as urea, mineral salts, and various toxins from circulating blood; to help regulate the volume of body fluids and the blood levels of important chemicals and hormones; to initiate the recirculation of purified blood throughout an animal’s system; and to facilitate the excretion of the filtered-out waste products (mixed with water to form urine) before they reach toxic concentrations in the body. Most cats and dogs will go through life without experiencing a serious disruption in these vital processes. Some others, however, will experience urolithiasis—a potentially lethal condition marked by the formation of small stones (uroliths) somewhere within this elaborate system.

The upper tract consists of two kidneys, which handle the biochemical processes; and two slender tubes (ureters)—one leading from each kidney—that deliver waste-containing urine from the kidneys down to the lower tract. The lower tract, whose function is purely excretory, consists of the bladder, a muscular sac that receives the urine delivered to it through the ureters and stores it until it is expelled from the body via the other component of the lower tract, the urethra, a thin tube leading from the bladder to the outside world. Stones can develop anywhere within either the upper or lower tracts of the urinary system.

Bladder stones are composed of minerals—either struvite or calcium oxalate—while kidney stones are always made of calcium oxalate. “These minerals are present naturally in a cat’s  and dog’s body, the stones form when the minerals exceed a certain threshold of concentration in the urinary system. When the concentration goes over that threshold, they start to form crystals, and the crystals accumulate and may grow into stones. We don’t know why this process takes place, but we’ve observed that it tends to occur frequently in domesticated cats and dogs.

In some cases, bladder stones may be tiny and inconsequential, remaining harmlessly lodged somewhere within the urinary tract or passed without notice in a  urine. In other cases, however, they can grow to significant size, painfully irritate the tender tissue lining the tract, and cause internal bleeding. In the worst case, they can slip into a urethra and interfere with the passage of urine. A complete blockage—one that totally obstructs the flow of urine and prevents the elimination of poisonous waste from a cat’s system—will present a medical emergency that, without immediate veterinary care, may prove fatal.  Blockages are most common in male cats and dogs  since they have a very narrow and easily obstructed urethra.  Typical early signs include blood in the urine as well as increasingly frequent and painful urination.

Kidney stones, on the other hand, do not typically cause noticeable signs of disease until they become very large. Most of those   go undiagnosed until there is a problem, Both kidney stones and bladder stones can be readily diagnosed by means of x-rays and ultrasound.

Regarding the treatment of kidney stones, In most cases, we don’t believe that we should go in, open the kidneys, and remove the stones unless they’re causing significant obstruction or infection. But bladder stones are typically treated either surgically  or by managing the diet .

To reduce the risk of kidney and bladder stones, Make sure that your cat and dog  always has access to water and is drinking it. they  prefer fresh water, so don’t let it stand around for days

On a less carb diet program? Planning on sharing some of those less calorie dessert meals with your canine pets? You need to stop! That sugar-free meal you consider is suitable for you and your dog, in fact, could create a situation of you paying a visit to the veterinarian!

The sugar substitute, Xylitol, has been a great development in fighting against tooth decay and in helping diabetics to recover from their disorder. Yet, this well-known sweetener may be damaging to the family pet. A new study now being on air shows that consumption of Xylitol by dogs can become the reason for liver miscarriage and even their passing away. Reports from the ASPCA Poison Control Center shows the number of Xylitol exposed and affected pet is on the rise and that rise has increased the number of veterinarian visits.

For many years, veterinarians have questioned that Xylitol could make dogs sick, but an article in the October topic of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA) has taken into documentation the results of various issues of Xylitol consumptions in dogs from 2003 to 2005. Five of eight dogs passed away or had to be euthanized because of problems rooting from Xylitol consumption.

Usually found in human mints, sugar-free gums, toothpaste, and sweets, Xylitol, has been a famous sugar replacement since the 1960s. Yet, researchers found that even small volumes of Xylitol can become the reason of liver damage and even death in dogs.

Dogs that consume large volumes of Xylitol have sudden and huge drops in blood sugar levels, leading to lameness and non-coordinated movements. Occasionally, seizures may be found as well. Yet, even small volumes of Xylitol are not safe. As little as 1 gram of Xylitol can set off a chain of events resulting in liver destruction. A dog could get this amount in just a few candies or sticks of gum consisting of this sugar replacement. Xylitol can also be found in children’s chewable multi-vitamins, plain cough drugs, and even mouthwashes.

Even though most pet owners on daily basis feed some sort of “human food” to their dogs, the JAVMA report must be a wake-up call, showing that numerous foods that are safe for humans can develop trouble to pets.


Most of the dog keepers would acknowledge lack of understanding or maybe even an absence of accountability regarding hypertension or high blood pressure in dogs. Since, dogs don’t live the same high-stress lifestyle that most humans do and they’re not usually indulging in high-salt or high-fat diets, so why would they develop high blood pressure? Well, the answer may be a little more complicated than just lifestyle options.

One research showed that 93% of dogs with chronic kidney disorder suffers from high blood pressure. Other research cites that more than 60% of geriatric dogs (over 8 years old) also suffer from this usually silent condition. In humans, the most common cause of hypertension is called primary or essential, meaning that there is no underlying disease causing it. Dogs, on the other hand, most commonly develop secondary hypertension, which means that it is related with an underlying medical condition.

Blood pressure in humans is measured by slightly occluding an artery in an arm or leg. A stethoscope is then used to focus for the coming back of the pulse as the force is gradually released. This point is referred to as the systolic blood pressure, or the higher of the two numbers you will hear or read. Further, the force maintains to be discharged and when no pulse sounds are heard, that force is called the diastolic pressure. Blood pressure is then read as systolic over diastolic, for instance, 140 over 80. For dogs, the stethoscope is usually liable enough to hear the pulse sounds but it is actually not possible to find the diastolic pressure. Most veterinarians will normally record a pet’s blood pressure as the systolic count, or for instance, 180. Maximum veterinarians who use blood pressure quantification, use an ultrasonic probe to “hear” when the pulse comes back to the artery. The probe will then change that sign into an audible sound for the doctor. Professionals want both veterinarians and keepers to not be scared of a single high reading. The essential thing to keep in mind is that the results must be comparable.

Dogs usually suffer from secondary hypertension, or high blood pressure because of some underlying medical condition for example the extremely increasing acute kidney disorder in canines can progress to high blood pressure. Cushing’s disorder (an overproduction of cortisone by the body), and adrenal gland malignancy are other conditions that can lead to high blood pressure in dogs. With high blood force, blood vessels can begin to be thickened and extended and may ultimately tug and tear, becoming the reason for the bleeding. This may not be straight away noticeable, but as small vessels in the eye and in the kidneys start to be damaged, dogs will start to display medical symptoms. Signs of high blood pressure are usually unseen by the keeper. An abrupt or slow starting of blindness can be the single obvious symptom that your pet may have high blood pressure. High blood pressure can become worse with the existing kidney disorder, which can lead to bleeding in the brain, and will eventually influence every organ in the body.

Since high blood pressure usually result from one or more underlying medical conditions in our pets, therefore, treating the underlying medical conditions will usually control the high blood pressure. As with humans, for pets too very basic drugs are available to help enlarge blood vessels and decrease the force from the blood flow. However in addition to drugs, daily blood monitoring and blood force quantification will be extremely essential for the fitness of your pet. 


Whether brief and comparatively simple (such as routine dentistry ) or prolonged and complicated , virtually all feline surgical procedures require that the patient be anesthetized so that the operation can be efficiently and painlessly completed. An especially excitable or hypersensitive cat or dog may also have to be temporarily rendered unconscious during such relatively simple and noninvasive procedures as examining its ears or changing its bandages, since it may resist treatment and demonstrate its annoyance by thrashing about and clawing at the practitioner.

“Although anesthesia is used primarily for the patient’s benefit, sometimes it’s necessary for the veterinarian’s safety as well.

A local anesthetic blocks the pain pathways leading to the brain from a specific area of a pets  body, such as the mouth, a paw, or an ear. Because the sensation is blocked from being transmitted from that specific area to the brain, the patient cannot perceive it. Commonly used local anesthetic agents include lidocaine and bupivicaine. Depending on the agent, local anesthetics can be applied either by injection or, in the case of a superficial wound, topically. When a procedure requiring a local anesthetic gets underway, then we need to use general sedation or anesthesia.

Local anesthetics can also be used to anesthetize a larger region of the body, such as the abdomen. This is done by administering an epidural injection with local anesthetics, similar to the technique used in women during labor. Epidural anesthesia can also be used to anesthetize a hind limb during a fracture repair, for example. For more complicated procedures, or if the animal is intractable, general anesthesia is used. When a general anesthetic is used, all of the pathways in the nervous system that transmit pain from its source to the brain remain intact but the stimulus is blunted because the brain is asleep and the patient will not experience the pain. The attending veterinarian and/or an anesthesiologist select the types of anesthetics and specific agents to be used depending on the patient’s age and general health; the nature of the procedure; which organs are involved; and the time required for the drugs to take effect.

In a surgical procedure requiring general anesthesia, the patient is first given an injection that will sedate it, followed a short time later by administration of the selected drug, which will make the patient fall into a deep sleep. When the pet  is unconscious, a tube is inserted into its trachea to ensure that the passage to its lungs remains open and the cat receives a steady supply of oxygen while it is asleep. Then the cat is connected to a device enabling it to inhale an anesthetic gas, such as Isoflurane or Sevoflurane, throughout the operation. During the surgery, depth of anesthesia is monitored by checking the animal’s pulse, heart rate, mucus membrane color, reflexes and jaw tone. Many veterinarians use pulse oximeters to measure the oxygen content of the blood and blood pressure monitors are also commonplace. At our hospital  modern monitoring equipment is used, allowing close evaluation of the cat’s vital functions while under anesthesia.


Silicon Valley Pet Clinic’s Team is dedicated to providing our clients with the most beautiful smile together with the best pet protection available nowadays. Our Silicon Valley Pet Clinic is located at 3100 El Camino Real Santa Clara, CA 95051


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